Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. (Adopted by the International Dyslexia Board of Directors, November 12, 2002).

Hudson ISD strives to provide the best, most recent research-based strategies and targeted intervention for students with dyslexia. Attached is a link to the current Hudson ISD Dyslexia Plan, as well as the new 'burgandy book', also known as the Texas Dyslexia Handbook. These documents will provide the most up-to-date policies, laws, and procedures for serving students referred or identified with a specific learning disabilities such as dyslexia.

It is important to understand that students identified with dyslexia are generally served through Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which is federal law enacted to eliminate discrimination based on disabilities. A few students may have such severe cases of dyslexia, or that compounded with other disabilities, to the extent that services may have to be offered as part of IDEA, or Special Education. A very slight portion of the student population with dyslexia may not be served in either program, due to a lack of a substantial limitation due to the disability.

There are four major reading disability sub-types:
  1. Dysphonetic Dyslexia: difficulty sounding out words in a phonological manner
  2. Surface Dyslexia: difficulty with the rapid and automatic recognition of words in print
  3. Mixed Dyslexia: multiple reading deficits characterized by impaired phonological and orthographic processing skills; it is probably the most severe form of dyslexia.
  4. Comprehension Deficits: the mechanical side of reading is fine but difficulty persists deriving meaning from print
The chart below provides more detailed information about these reading disabilities and treatment:

Dysphonetic Dyslexia
Difficulty sounding out words in a phonological manner; inability to use phonological route to bridge letters and sounds; over-reliance on visual or orthographic cues; tend to guess on words based on initial letters observed; typically memorize whole words
Intervention should include an explicit phonological approach

Surface Dyslexia
Difficulty with the rapid and automatic recognition of words in print; can sound out words, but cannot recognize words in print automatically and effortlessly; letter-by-letter and sound-by-sound readers; over reliance on phonological properties and under-appreciation of orthographic or spatial properties of the word; reading is slow and laborious.
Intervention should focus on automaticity and fluency goals (not necessarily an explicit phonological approach)

Mixed Dyslexia
Multiple reading deficits characterized by impaired phonological and orthographic processing skills. Most likely the most severe form of dyslexia; characterized by a combination of poor phonological processing skills, slower rapid and automatic word recognition skills, inconsistent language comprehension skills; bizarre error patterns in reading; double-deficit.
Intervention should incorporate a balanced literacy approach

Comprehension Deficits
The mechanical side of reading is fine, but difficulty deriving meaning from print
Intervention should be at the language level, not the phonological level; externalize the reasoning process—Summarize, Clarify, Question and Predict

Specific treatment is based on individual student need, as determined through the 504 process. The role that parents play in assisting dyslexic children is crucial. It is our goal to provide parents with a list of current resources and apps that will be beneficial to their child's success.